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The Criticism Culture and Morality of Tolerance in Islamic Thought II

(Internatıonal Symposıum) 

Classical Period (VII. - XII.)

            As will be recalled, an international symposium on The Criticism Culture and Morality of Tolerance in Islamic Thought was held by the Faculty of Islamic Sciences at Muş Alparslan University on 26-27-28 April, 2019 and this activity attracted great attention both from the public and academics. As a result of the symposium, which was held with intense participation, academicians, literate and intellectuals of considerable quality and quantity made recommendations that the subject of The Criticism Culture and Morality of Tolerance in Islamic Thought should be institutionalized and continued in the form of symposium series. Evaluating these recommendations, the Rector of Muş Alparslan University and the Faculty of Islamic Sciences found that a second symposium titled The Criticism Culture and Morality of Tolerance in Islamic Thought II would be useful. On this occasion, it was decided to hold an international symposium on the same topic on 1-2 September 2020.

The existence of dispute and conflicts among Muslims living in different parts of the world, especially in the Middle East, leads to a negative image of Islam, which is the last hope of humanity, among people of different faiths and cultures. Giving a religious identity to such dispute and conflicts, which are mainly based on political and social causes, shows that the problems spread to the theoretical areas. The problems that gain depth with the absolutization of interpretation, the monopolization of thought, and the trail of the sects into religious identity, have disrupted the unity and order among Muslims and prepare the environment for all kinds of violence and terror. However, Muslims, who hold the basic principles of the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet as a guide, have shown numerous examples of living together in history. In this age, experiencing these examples which have placed Islamic civilization in a privileged position is possible only by transferring the accumulations in our history in a way that will mirror the present day. However, it does not seem possible to examine and analyze all of the acquirements and diversity in our history regarding The Criticism Culture and Morality of Tolerance in only one symposium. In the first symposium held in 2019, it was aimed to reveal the data in our history and culture with a general projection that did not make any classification based on theme or period. At this point, it is seen that in the history of Islamic thought, the fields and subjects that constitute a reference to criticism and tolerance towards the others had constituted a rich literature and this situation necessitates a periodic or thematic classification. The Symposium Organizing Committee decided to limit the symposium, which was planned to be held in 2020, to the classical period on the assumption that its framework would be more specific and orderly. In the next two years covering the same subject in two periods, XII.- XIX. Centuries (Pre-Modern Period) and XIX - XXI. Centuries (Modern Period or Contemporary Islamic Thought), is expected to be useful. The symposium which will be held this year is roughly classified according to the branches of science and taken below in order to give an idea to the researchers.


Symposium Topics

 Tafsir (Hermeneutics)

-     The Discussions on the Course of Formation of the Tafsir Method

-     The First Tafsir Products (Method and Style)

-     Controversial Issues in the History of the Qur'an (Source, Conservation, Textual Process and Orientalistic Criticisms)

-     Reflections of Sectarian Debates on the Tafsir

-     The First Tafsir Problems

-     The Problem of Isra’iliyyat in the Islamic Thought (The Entry of Isra’iliyyat to Tafsir and the Overview of Isra’iliyyat)

-     Repetition Problem in Tafsirs

-     The Fundamentals and Value of Tafsir-Ta’wil and Riwayah - Dirayah Distinction

-     The Pleasure of Understanding the Qur'an in the Frame of Sufistic and Mystical Interpretations

-     Istishhad with poetry


Hadith / Sunnah

-     Memorization and Writing of The Hadith

-     Transmission of Hadith (Prophetic Narration)

-     Imputation of Hadith Types to the Prophet

-     Hadith Reports based on Meanings

-     The Fact of Fabricated Hadith

-     The Attitude of the Prophet against Theological Problems

-     The Attitude of the Prophet against Social Problems

- Rashid Caliphs’ Methods of Solving Problems

- The Social Structure in the Companions Period

- Knowledge Value and Criticism of Qudsi (Divine) Hadiths

-     Prohibition of Writing Hadiths in the Caliphs Period and Criticisms towards This.

-     Disadvantages of Acting with Every Hadith

-     Controversial Narrations and Recommendations for the Solution

-     Dilemmas of Text Criticism in Hadith

-     Hadith Problems in Shia

-     Contributions of al-Jarh - al-Ta‘dil to Hadith Sciences

-     Criticisms towards Hadith Methodology

-     Rejections in the Hadith

-     Problems Faced by Critic Scholars


Fiqh / History of Sects

-     The concept of "Fiqh", the Framework of Meaning and Views on Its Transformation to a Science Branch

-     The Tradition of Dispute (İlmu’l-Hilâf)

-     Disagreements about ijtihad and its nature

-     Practical projections of the Mujtahid classification (Absolute Mujtahid, sect Mujtahid, Companions of the Takhrij and Preference ….)

-     Ahl al-Ra'y - Ahl al-Hadith Discussions

-     Differences of the First Three Generations Regarding Furû Fiqh

-     System Differences Between Mujtahid and Fukaha or Differences of Views on Furû Fiqh

-     Formation of the Sects and Anachronism

-     The Sects that do not have any followers and the Reasons for Non-Propagation of Sect Views

-     Symbol Mujtahid and Jurists in the First Four Centuries and Their Contrarian Views

-     Critics and Criticisms on the Methodology and Furû Works Written in the Early Periods, Criticisms towards Criticisms.

-     Information Sharing Between Mujtahid and Fukaha, Discussion and Debates

-     Differences between Preceptors and Their Students

-     ‘Ilm-i Hilâf

-     ‘Ilm-i Furûq ve Talfiq


Theology – Philosophy

-     The Impact of Government-Opposition Relations on Scientific Studies in the Period of Tadwin

-     The Tradition of Refutation and Debate

-     Ahl al-Sunnah and Differentiations within the Sect

-     Predecessor - Successor Differentiation and Its Meaning

-     Umayyad's Perception of Destiny and Qadariyya Sect

-     Hasan Basri's Approach to Theology

-     The Development of Rational Thinking in the Context of the Relationship between Maturidite - Mu'tazila-

-     The Problem of Takfir and Violence in the Theological Division

-     The Relationship between Mu'tazila and Philosophy  

-     Gazzâlî's Philosophy, Revive Efforts, and His Criticism for  the Philosophers

-     The Tradition of Tehafut

-     The Problem of Method of the Early Theologians

-     The Capabilities of the Theological Division  for Development of “Theory”

-     Criticism and Rationality in Peripatetic Philosophy

-     Foreign Philosophy Schools in the Formation of Philosophical Thought in Islam (Umayyad Period 661-750)

-     Cities in the Development Process of Islamic Thought, Scientific, Intellectual Activities, Institutions in These Cities: Beyt el-Hikme, Azhar, Nizamiye Madrasahs

-     Intellectual Interests of the Caliphs and Administrators; The Contributions of Famous Families to Science

-     Multicultural Environment in the Formation and Development Process of Islamic Thought / Non-Muslim Thinkers in Islamic Geography and Their Effects on the Formation of the Islamic Thought (Employment of non-Muslim translators; Ibn Cebirol, Musa b. Meymun etc.)

-     The First Philosophical Schools and Their Representatives in Islamic Thought. (Dehriyyun, Tabiiyyun, Peripatetic, Israkîs, Batinis…)

-     Physics, Logic studies.

-     Philosophical studies in Andalusia. (Ibn Meserre, Ibn Hazm, Ibn Bacje, Ibn Tufeyl, Ibn Rushd…)

-     The Effects of Andalusian Islamic Thought on Western Thought.


Arts and Literature

-     Music Critics in Islamic Thought

-     Debates and Theoretical Criticisms in the Early Islamic Art (Painting, Sculpture, Poetry, etc.)

-     Early Islamic Literature (The Place of Critical Perspectives in Arabic, Persian and Islamic Turkish Literature)


History and Civilization

-     The Debates between Schools in the First Period of Islamic Historiography (Medina and Iraqi History Schools)

-     Debates around Ibn Saba as a Historical Character in Early Islamic Historiography

-     Discussions of Caliphate in the Islamic History (Four Caliphs and Umayyad’s)

-     Mihne in the Abbasid Period and Related Discussions

-     Discussions around Mewali and Şuûbiyye (Umayyad’s and Abbasid’s)

-     Discussions around the Diwan Organization in the Four Caliphs and the Umayyad Period 

-     Criticisms of the Historians of Islam



-     The Elements triggering the Zuhd Movement in Islam

-     The Criticisms of Real Sufis to Imitators up to the 5th Century

-     The Emergence of Sufism and Open-Hidden Distinction-

-     Tradition of Self-Criticism in Sufism

-     Effects of Disruptive Criticisms of Wisdom Tradition on the Islamic Thought

-     Criticism Culture in Early Sufi Classics



-     Educational Strategies of Prophet Muhammad for Women, Men, and Children and Their Actual Meanings

-     Primary Education Institutions (Method-Curriculum, etc.)

-     Religious Education in the Period of the Four Caliphs

-     Critical Approaches to Religious Education in Umayyad and Abbasid Period

-     The Method Debates in the First Period Religious Education

-     Social Environment and Religion in Peoples' Islamization Process